康奈尔景观系主任Timothy Baird专访|美国唯一有景观/建筑本科的藤校,究竟强在哪?

Timothy Baird

Professor and Chair of 

Landscape Architecture at Cornell University

Adjunct Principal, Landworks Studio, Inc.


University of Pennsylvania, MLA

Louisiana State University, BLA

作为美国常春藤藤校中唯一拥有景观/建筑本科的Cornell在Landscape Architecture排名位居前茅。景观系位于College of Agriculture and Life Science (CALS)这学院下,在全美最优秀的农学院的强大支持下,构建了丰富资源和教学体系。由系主任Timothy Baird的带领下,景观系研究方向非常多元,包括Green Infrastructure、Landscape Preservation、Cultural Landscape 与 Urban Design。国际化的合作与交流也为Cornell的毕业生提供了的扎实的基本功和广阔的视野。

带着大家对于景观教育的好奇,建道ArchiDogs对谈康奈尔景观系主任Timothy Baird,一起聊聊美国藤校的景观教育。


01 / People



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Timothy Baird

Professor and Chair of

Landscape Architecture at Cornell University

Adjunct Principal, Landworks Studio, Inc.



University of Pennsylvania, MLA

Louisiana State University, BLA



200 5th Avenue | New York, NY



02 / Teaching at Cornell




█  Cornell的风景园林系隶属于农学院(Cornell CALS,College of Agriculture and life sciences),该系与其他隶属于设计学院的风景园林项目(比如宾大,GSD)有什么不同?


Cornell's landscape architecture department is under Cornell CALS - College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. How does that make Cornell's landscape architecture different from those who are under Design Schools (such as UPenn, GSD)?


T:康奈尔大学的景观专业源于农业和园艺业,后来才有了设计学院。很多人都在问我们为什么不搬到设计学院去?我们将这些非常棘手的问题称为“雷区”,因为两者各有利弊。虽然设计学院能使学生沉浸于设计工作室文化(studio culture)中,让他们获得认同感。




Landscape Architecture generally started in agriculture and horticulture then developed design schools. Some people asked us, “Why don't we move to the design school?”. There are a lot of pros and cons either way. Being in a design school is very good for immersing students in the studio culture and understanding that sort of commitment.


However, Cornell students can take courses anywhere, and faculty can do research across any college or department. We are still able to do quality work no matter where we are. It may be very difficult to learn something that is not a science, such as design. Thus, it is helpful to be around other designers and see their works on exhibit.


█  Cornell的景观本科(BSLA)与景观研究生(MLA)在课程设置上的特色分别是什么?景观研究生会更偏向研究吗?


What are the differences and features of Cornell's undergraduate landscape architecture (BSLA) and graduate landscape architecture (MLA) courses? Is MLA more research-oriented?






The curriculum and faculty for both programs are generally the same, but the amount of work and the depth of understanding are different. The graduate students’ work is expected to be more rigorous and to be more intensively research-based. Their studios are all research-driven. But no matter undergraduate or graduate, all studios begin with a research question on a topic and a set of goals to accomplish.


Cornell is the only Ivy League university that has undergraduate degrees in both landscape architecture and architecture. Thus, they are very unique in that respect.


█  康奈尔大学和上海交通大学有合作,目前或者未来还会与哪些中国院校进行合作?


There was a collaboration between Cornell University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. What is the future plan for Cornell's landscape architecture department regarding international collaboration?




Cornell has had a relationship with the landscape architecture department at Jiao Tong University for many years. We had an experimental class of collaborative teaching a few years ago. We brought students here, and they brought students to Cornell.


█  两所学校未来会做联合课程或者联合学位吗?

Is it possible for both universities to share the studio classes?




目前,我们正在讨论求学期间出国学习(study aboard program)的合作机会。我认为,让外国的学生来中国学习会是一种很棒的体验!我们系有很多中国学生想回中国进行暑期实习,因此我也在中国为他们物色实习机会。中国现在有很多新兴的本土设计公司。例如在深圳,上海和洛杉矶都设有工作室的Lab D + H。它是由我们的校友钟惠城与他的朋友们一同创建的。


That's exactly what they would like to see implemented, but it is a very difficult thing to do. We don’t have enough faculty to take over that responsibility, but it's something that we were thinking of in the future for sure.


But for now, we are looking at study abroad opportunities, such as exchange programs. Especially, I think having foreign students come and study one semester would be great. A lot of Chinese students want to go back to China for internships during the summer break. Thus, I'm looking at firms here for them. There are so many new young emerging Chinese firms like Lab D+H in Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Los Angeles which was co-founded by our Cornell alumni, Huicheng Zhong.


█  您本人毕业于宾夕法尼亚大学和路易斯安那州立大学,这两个学校的教学对您目前在康奈尔的任教与景观实践有何影响?


You graduated from Upenn and LSU. How did the teaching of these two schools influence your current teaching at Cornell and professional practice?


T:路易斯安那州立大学(LSU)的教学理念和应用技术都非常先进。正如他们的教学理念 —— 一位真正优秀的设计师,需要在设计的同时知道如何实现他的作品。


毕业后我在费城工作,并在四年半后获得了景观建筑师的执照。可惜我在经济衰退的时期失业了,于是我决定去宾大深造。宾大拥有一个完全不同的教学系统,他们侧重于运用自然与自然科学合作的生态规划和设计。同时,宾大还邀请了一些相当优秀的设计师,例如宾大风景园林设计的系主任伊恩·麦克哈格(lan McHarg)、劳里·奥林(Laurie Olin)、鲍勃·汉娜(Bob Hanna)等人,由他们重组景观系并设置课程。




LSU had a very great design focus with technical competence. That was what they wanted to see in their graduates – A good designer should know how to craft ideas into built work. Therefore, that was my foundation.


I went to work in Philadelphia, and I was licensed after four and a half years. Unfortunately, I was laid off because of a recession. I eventually got into Penn to start my graduate degree. I experienced a different teaching system. Penn focuses on ecological planning and design. Especially planning focuses on engaging natural scientists and social sciences. Program Chair Ian McHarg also hired people who formed and re-programmed landscape architecture, such as Laurie Olin and Bob Hanna, who were really good designers.


I think the combination of the educational background from LSU and Penn was a good foundation. Any good graduate school offers its students opportunities to meet and learn a lot from many outstanding designers. I always felt that I needed to work with as many different designers as possible to gain multiple design perspectives.


█  您曾经教过一个景观结合虚拟现实技术来研究巴西贫民窟的设计课,您如何看待新技术对于景观行业的影响?


We know that you had a new studio that engaged students in the study of one Brazilian favela through virtual reality (VR) technology. What’s your attitude towards new technology in landscape architecture? And how can we incorporate them better with design studios?








Obviously, you go to see the people and the site in the beginning and then go back after developing proposals. However, we could only afford to take one trip to Brazil. Thus, we did a virtual site visit that used virtual reality as a proxy (for the beginning part). Fortunately, we had this virtual environment that students could enter into and move through to better understand the neighborhood before we traveled there.


The site was the Santa Marta Favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The people made communities organically on land that was forbidden for development due to very steep slopes. There are many informal settlements in developing countries because of the high cost of local housing.  During the studio, our students could put on the VR headset at any time and move through the site virtually to collect data. It is amazing because you can look up and see the building. You can also look down and see the paving. After our students finished the course, we surveyed their feelings about that process.


We are not only incorporating technologies into studios in the site inventory phase but also through design phases. VR gives us an impression of what it would be like at eye level to be there in person.


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Department of Landscape Architecture


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Tim Baird,professor,and chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture joined the Council of Fellows for the American Society of Landscape Architects at a ceremony Oct. 21 in Philadelphia.



03 / Design Practice




█  您在教学的同时也在Landworks studio担任设计总监,您是如何平衡教学与实践的?


While teaching design, you are also an Adjunct Principal at ‘Landworks Studio’. How do you balance teaching and practice?


T:我很荣幸在2014年能够加入Landworks Studio。有时,我自行选择项目并参与,这对我来说是一个理想的情况。教学和实践有时很难兼顾,因此保持两者平衡是很重要的。我希望在将来能有更多的时间投入到建筑实践中。当然,我的首要责任还是对景观系的学生负责,将我个人实践和学术经验传授给他们。




I joined Landworks Studio in 2004 and have continued to practice with the firm in a part-time capacity depending on my workload as department chair... I'm able to work as little or as much as I want, which is an ideal situation for me. Balancing the position between an administrator and professor is difficult but important. I hope I will eventually have more time to devote to practice once we have made several important improvements to the department. My first responsibility is to the department and students. On the other hand, what I bring to students is my practice experience along with my academic experience.


One of the things I talked about at the Idea of Design Education Symposium at SJTU is research by design. It's the idea that research can be done through the act of design. It is a constant iterative process where you're drawing and modeling to test ideas, materiality, formal strategy, ecological and cultural sensitivity, and you're continually changing and revising your design. That is a valid form of research for me. Faculty should be able to get tenure through creative work, not just through research that results in publications.


█  在中国实践的过程中,你是如何理解当地的历史与文化?


When you are practicing in China, how can you understand a site with a long history and culture?








Any time one enters a different culture you have to learn about it. Landscape architects are always moving into different territories, and the first step is to understand that territory. You need people on the team to help you with it. On our teams, we have Chinese employees and others who act in this role to help us and guide the projects. We also rely on local consultants who assist in understanding the local culture, ecology, and customs.


We sometimes need to do more than architects because we have to understand the site. There are many things ecologically that you have to understand historically, culturally, especially in a different country.


One of our alumni, Huicheng Zhong, had a client with a project in Shenzhen that required Fengshui. Huicheng showed me that the fountain jets had to be odd numbers. Maybe we should teach a course in Fengshui at Cornell and we have many Chinese students who could teach the course better than the faculty!



04 / How to apply to Cornell




█  作品集是学生申请中很重要的一部分,你希望在学生的作品集中看到什么?什么样的作品集能让你们感到印象深刻?


Portfolio is an important part of a student's application. What would you expect to see in a student's portfolio? What kind of portfolio would make you feel impressed?




We review their portfolios and personal statements to get a better understanding of the student’s capabilities. We look for someone who has creative potential and who has possibly focused on a specific topic with a deeper understanding. Of course, nice drawings and models, and other examples of creative activity, are expected. For example, this topic could be climate change.


█  如果你们对某个学生特别感兴趣,会发出面试邀请吗?


If you are very interested in some students from the portfolio, will you give them an interview?




No. acceptances are based on what's submitted. The entrance requirements for Cornell are pretty high. Cornell will separate out the low TOEFL scores prior to our admissions committee sees the applications.



Sasha Anemone and Nell Crumbley LA6010 studio final review


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Student work

© Parth Divekar MLA '18 from 3rd Year MLA Studio with Margot Lystra



05 / Advice to students




█  您对当今景观设计行业有怎样的看法?对于这一代年轻学生和设计师,您希望他们在做设计的时候从哪些方面去考虑?


What do you think of the landscape architecture design today? What aspects do you expect the young generation to consider when designing?






First of all, you need to be a curious and self-critical thinker with a developed work ethic. Collaboration is also important. Landscape projects today are very complex and require teams of experts to realize them. This means you must be willing to collaborate with a general understanding of ecology, social sciences, history, culture, all of that. Certainly, you also need to master technology.


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Interview with Timothy Baird © ArchiDogs


访谈|Kelly Zhu, Luke Lu, Chenliang Ma

翻译/文案|Kelly Zhu,  Yiwei Huang

校对|Yiwei Huang, Sherry Li, Yuxin Pan